Autism Epidemic: The Hyper-Masculinization Theory

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is more prevalent now than ever before, it’s a topic rarely discussed — in previous articles I have put forward several theories as to the cause of the illness; including but not limited to exposure to toxins in pharmaceutical vaccines, the genetic and gender roles in the origins of the illness, environmental traumas, prenatal exposure to hostile chemical agents, and so on.

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Autism has skyrocketed. The mainstream media and the medical establishment have attributed this to ‘greater rates of diagnosis’ and a more comprehensive understanding of autism as a condition – I disagree with this poor explanation; autism is very noticeable and identifiable.

As a disclaimer, and to distinguish — autism has numerous manifest forms; generally recognized in problems with social communication and social interaction, and/or restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities — there are numerous hues of the “autistic” profile, as per the varying extent of the condition’s causative effects.

Endocrine disruptors are likely having a major role in the onset of autistic spectrum’s symptoms in people. Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that may mimic and interfere with the body’s chemical messenger system (endocrine system) and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, and immune effects in both humans and wildlife — hormones, besides DNA, are directly responsible for what we are, physically, mentally, and emotionally.

Our hormones can make us more masculine or more feminine, decide where our bodies should build muscle, fat, affect our gynecology, alter the structure and thought processes of our brains; dictate our personalities, our behavior, our very perception of the world around us — the list is endless, this is crucial in understanding autism as an illness and how it manifests.

There is a growing recognition that even small amounts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals can have a deleterious affect on the development of the fetus, infants and young children.

All in all, most of these “autistic” profiles, any way you look at them, are extremely damaging to the fabric of our society (no, autism is not healthy or natural) and can be pinned to a few common likely causes.

On pharmaceutical vaccines, chronic immune system dysregulation:

A common argument against people who are skeptical of or criticize vaccines is that vaccines are the “magic bullet” to our health and wellbeing, that without vaccines we’d all die in some horrendous plague. This is patently false. Vaccines, like anything we put into our bodies, should be questioned and scrutinized.

Epidemiological studies (statistical surveys) show poorer long-term health is more common among the vaccinated who survive without serious injury than children who are not vaccinated — this condition is termed “vaccinosis”. (1234).

Gian Paolo Vanoli, a scientist, journalist and opponent of vaccinations, says that vaccines make people gay. This is one just account of the detrimental hormonal influences of vaccines.

Vaccines only engage part of the immune system, they intravenously introduce pathogens; a way the body cannot manufacture a proper adaptive response, the result is autoimmune disorders. In cases of immune system over activity, the body attacks and damages its own tissues (autoimmune diseases). Heightened body inflammation over a vaccinosis sufferers’ life results in numerous illnesses.

When people are subject to repeated vaccines, they predictably simulate a situation of suppressed cell-mediated immunity and heightened antibody responses. Why? Because that’s the goal of vaccination. If you make a list of the diseases that are characterized by suppressed cell-mediated immunity and heightened humoral immunity, you’re talking health conditions like asthma, allergies, eczema and autoimmune diseases including Crohn’s, Vitiligo, Multiple Sclerosis, Sjogren’s syndrome, Hashimoto’s, etcetera.

We cannot and will not eradicate all disease with vaccines. We have merely traded acute illnesses from which most recover for chronic illnesses for which modern medicine has no cure.

110_vaccination_risks
It’s become increasingly apparent that vaccines turn the guns of immune defense inwards.
  • In a 1997 study in New Zealand, 1265 children were surveyed: twenty-three percent of the vaccinated children experienced asthma and thirty percent suffered from allergies. The unvaccinated children did not have a single incident of these illnesses.
  • In a 2004 British Study of 30,000 children, vaccinated children had a 5.04 increased risk of asthma, while the unvaccinated only had a .36 percent prevalence.
  • In a 2011 German Study of 8000 children, vaccinated children had at least two to five times more diseases and disorders than unvaccinated children.

In patients with an autoimmune disorder, the immune system can’t tell the difference between healthy body tissue and antigens that need to be attacked. The result is an immune response that destroys normal body tissues. This response is a hypersensitivity reaction similar to the response in allergic conditions. Vaccinations have been shown to induce autoimmune disorders.

Interestingly, there’s a study out of Kobe University in Japan where they took mice and put them on a rigorous vaccination program. They wanted to see if they could develop excessive antibodies as seen in autoimmune disease. And they found that at a certain threshold they could consistently and reliably induce autoimmune disease by simply giving enough vaccinations. (source)

This vaccine-induced autoimmune disease may explain the onset of autism in some people who are genetically susceptible or otherwise. Is autism an autoimmune disorder? Most likely.

The Kobe University study authors concluded:

“Systemic autoimmunity appears to be the inevitable consequenceof over-stimulating the host’s immune ‘system’ by repeated immunization with antigen to the levels that surpass the system’s self-organize criticality.”

In other words, they found that, not only is vaccination a possible or even probable cause of autoimmune disorders, but that chronic diseases are the inevitable result of vaccinations!

This study was done with mice. This begs the question, ‘Has this been replicated in humans?’ Unequivocally yes. This experiment has been done and it’s called the last 70 years.

Autoimmune diseases have increased in quantity and variety as the number of vaccinations has increased over the last 70 years. There are over 100 autoimmune diseases. Studies with monogenetic twins have revealed that genetic influences only account for 25–40% of the disease risk making environmental influences the predominant factors. (7) Regardless of genetic vulnerability, one’s environment determines whether genes for autoimmunity are expressed.

There is a reason the fastest growing subset of diseases in the US and the world are autoimmune diseases. This is because we’re producing them. It’s a growth industry. As vaccines have increased in number, so have the number of cases of autoimmune disease.

Currently, there are 38 vaccines on the recommended schedule, with even more in some US states. There are many more vaccines in development. I predict a worsening epidemic of allergies, asthma, autoimmune and other diseases caused by an atrophy of the cell-mediated immune response as more vaccines are added to the vaccine schedule. We are only seeing the tip of the iceberg with vaccine-induced disease.

In vulnerable children, vaccines cause autism, seizures, mental retardation and so many other health issues. One must also take into account the fact that for every severe reaction, vaccine provoke less acute effects like confusion, language difficulties, memory issues, irritability, mood alterations, combativeness, difficulty concentrating and behavioral problems. (source). This sounds very much like ADD and ADHD, which are sweeping the child population in epidemic proportions.

Read more at MyersDetox.

Sources for information on vaccines:

  1. Drtenpenny.com
  2. Vaccineresearchlibrary.com
  3. Novaccine.com
  4. 909shot.com
  5. Thinktwice.com
  6. Nvic.org (National Vaccine Information Center)
  7. Vaccinetruth.org
  8. Vran.org (excellent Canadian site)
  9. Childhoodshots.com

The Hyper-Masculinization Theory

The 2004 book by Simon Baron-Cohen called “Prenatal Testosterone in Mind: Amniotic Fluid Studies” and his 2003 book “The Essential Difference: Men, Women and the Extreme Male Brain”, dives into the role gestational endocrinology might have in influencing human minds, personalities and behavioral profiles.

One emerging theory suggests that autism may have something to do with high exposure to adverse hormonal influences in the womb — in effect interfering with the child’s otherwise stable development — and pushing their cognitive profile to become overly systemic, or at least inhibiting the formation of a healthy cognitive profile — the result seems to be an augmentation of the structured and logical male brain. A personality style guided overly by systems and order.

Slightly elevated levels of testosterone in fetuses have been linked to health defects and autism, and that autism-type disorders are four to nine times more common in boys.

Research indicates that mercury and aluminum components of vaccines may have synergistic toxicity with testosterone, which causes the autistic symptoms to emerge. It’s not surprising when you consider the rise of autism came in the 1930s when ethyl mercury was first commercialized in agricultural products and in vaccines.

To address people who claim that mercury isn’t in vaccines anymore; it’s simply not true that they’ve removed the mercury exposure from infant and fetal vaccines. Mercury has come out of some vaccines. It’s still in others, and they’ve targeted pregnant women with flu shots, and ethyl mercury in pregnancy is even more toxic in pregnancy than it is in infancy. Also, injected substances are more toxic than conventionally ingested substances. Mercury you consume orally is less of a danger than injected mercury.

Like it or not, vaccines are likely the largest source of one-time exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in early infant development that may be responsible for these marginal fetal hormone-altering effects.

Natal and post-natal vaccinations are the only common logical stages wherein hormonal interference can take hold in a big way and change the biological course of someone’s life permanently.

Preterm delivery 4.7 times higher
Clear-cell adenocarcinoma 40 times higher
Neonatal death 8 times higher
Loss in second trimester pregnancy 3.8 times higher
Ectopic pregnancy 3.7 times higher
Stillbirth 2.4 times higher
Infertility 2.4 times higher
Early menopause 2.4 times higher
Breast cancer 1.8 times higher

For example, considering autism has been linked to testosterone, with boys having the condition far more than girls (at 80% of ASD cases being males), one study has shown that people with autism have more masculine facial structures than the average neurotypical person, pointing towards higher testosterone as a link.

A paper published in 2015 also found adults (both men and women) with higher prenatal testosterone had more masculine facial features, and that this is the group most likely to have the neurological profile known as autism.

The testosterone connection deepens, the lack of emotional intelligence in autistic people could be linked to the hyper-masculinisation associated with testosterone’s empathy-reducing effects on the brain — healthy men should have less empathy than women but should still have an emotional side; testosterone makes us more individualistic and antagonistic, hyper-masculinisation could push this to extremes. This capacity to empathize conventionally typically seems to be less prevalent in autistic people.

The hyper-specific interests of many autistic people perhaps alludes to the wiring of the archetypal male brain; the ability to focus on an objective and be undeterred by other interfering thought processes.

The effect on the autistic person’s emotional quotient seems to vary between overly sensitive and emotionally unpredictable, to overly systemic and rigid, or a combination of both, or a slight effect of any of these symptoms in the partial autistic condition known as Asperger syndrome. Interestingly, it seems to more commonly go the way of this hyper-systematized personality, though.

Returning to the testosterone link, the UWA research associate Syed Zulqarnain Gilani and his team developed a technique where 3-D photogrammetry — the science of making measurements from photographs — could score a face to be male or female, based on 11 facial features.

“First, we looked for features that distinguished between male and female,” Zulqarnain says.

“We found the autistic boys and girls had significantly more masculine gender scores than the non-autistic subjects.”

The study also found the more masculine the face, the more social communication difficulties the children in the ASD group had.

Pesticides could play a role in the autism epidemic.

Another study showed how elevated levels of a metabolite of the insecticide DDT in the blood of pregnant women are linked to increased risk for autism in the offspring.

The investigators found the odds of autism with intellectual disability in offspring were increased by greater than twofold for the mother’s DDE levels in the top quartile.

autism-prevalenceuse-glyphosate

Dr. Stephanie Seneff, when asked “is there a toxic substance that is currently in our environment on the rise in step with increasing rates of autism that could explain this?” Seneff responded; “The answer is yes, I’m quite sure that I’m right, and the answer is glyphosate.” — This glyphosate is the active ingredient in RoundUp, a product made by Monsanto, which ranks as the number one herbicide used worldwide.

Russia looks to become top producer and exporter of organic food with President Vladimir Putin recently signing a new law regulating production, storing and transportation of organic produce in Russia. The decree bans agrochemicals, pesticides, antibiotics growth stimulators and hormones. Many countries have banned or are taking steps to ban glyphosate use, and move to cleaner foods.

Pregnancy is a delicate process that cannot be interrupted.

During pregnancy the hormonal levels of the mother are in flux, it’s a phase in which her body is carefully assembling new life in the womb.

Natal vaccines, such as the flu jab, cause a shock to the system that changes the hormonal profile of the pregnant mother, the developing child takes the biggest hit.

Did I mention that a stunning finding revealed that autism is highest in areas with the highest vaccination rates? Correlation or causation?

Vaccines and pesticides also have a endocrine-disrupting effect on the gestating mother’s child, the evidence supports this:

For example, in 2004, Alan Cantwell, M.D. raised concerns that 74 million children in Africa were discovered to be contaminated with a variety of female sex hormones, and that the injection of these was linked to an increase of sterility. Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone, what is it doing in vaccines? — without a doubt I would link this to the rise in autism, homosexuality and gender-queerness.

The formative development of a person, involving the early biological emergence of a person’s distinct gender is an especially susceptible phase to disruption.

Aluminium and mercury, toxic adjuvants present in some vaccines are well-known potent endocrine disruptors. It’s no wonder many autistic kids show the signs of hormonal abnormality in their facial structure, as already mentioned – and that’s just the one’s that show an outward sign, it’s likely most have these irregularities but they may not be as outwardly noticeable.

Tyrone Hayes, University of CA professor was asked to study a chemical called atrazine, a widely-used herbicide manufactured by Syngenta. He found unexpected results: that it causes sexual abnormality in frogs and that it could potentially cause the same effects in humans (frogs changing from male to female). Herbicides like atrazine are detectable on and in most food — including food eaten by pregnant mothers and transferred to unborn babies.

Vaccines with heavy metals and viruses that cause inflammation, pesticides and any other similarly unnoticeable agents — the hormonal profile of the gestating mother will be forced to change to deal with the hostility, it looks like this may be at the expense of the fetus’ health — in nature, the mother’s body takes precedence over the unborn child, the mother’s body is the crucial supply line. For example, Dr. Deepak Chopra has claimed that hundreds of studies have confirmed that chemicals released by the pregnant mother’s body are transported into the womb and affect the unborn baby.

The start of the autism epidemic correlates closely with the phased introduction of the Hib vaccine plus the HepB vaccine in the late 1980’s/early 1990’s. At that time, both the Hib and the HepB contained high amounts of mercury and aluminum which significantly increased the exposure to infants to both of these toxic chemicals at a far earlier age than ever before (HepB: at birth and then 1-2, 4, and 6 months; Hib: 2, 4, and 6 months).

Although mercury has been reduced or removed in some vaccines since 2003, mercury is still a component in most flu vaccines. The number of infant vaccines with aluminum-based adjuvants administered by 18 months of age has increased by 54% since 2000, and the amount of aluminum administered has increased by 23%.

In an article for Mothering Magazine, Dr. Bob Sears warned about the aluminum content found in infant vaccines:

In other words, a newborn who gets a Hepatitis B injection on day one of life would receive 250 mcg of aluminum. This would be repeated at one month with the next Hep B shot. When, at two months, a baby gets its first big round of shots, the total dose of aluminum could vary from 295 mcg (if a non-aluminum HIB and the lowest-aluminum brand of DTaP are used) to a whopping 1225 mcg (if the Hep B vaccine is given along with the brands with the highest aluminum contents). These doses are repeated at four and six months. With most subsequent rounds of shots, a child would continue to get some aluminum throughout the first two years. But the FDA recommends that premature babies, and anyone with impaired kidney function, receive no more than 10 to 25 mcg of injected aluminum at any one time.

So there’s how it is; aluminum and mercury are both endocrine disruptors, as well as neurotoxins, and both can be particularly toxic when exposed to testosterone — is someone targeting men by needlessly putting these substances in vaccines? Of course.

There is no end to the tricks that endocrine disruptors can play on our bodies: increasing production of certain hormones; decreasing production of others; imitating hormones; turning one hormone into another; interfering with hormone signaling; telling cells to die prematurely; competing with essential nutrients; binding to essential hormones; accumulating in organs that produce hormones.

Vaccines may cause the immune system to attack itself.

In what is called an autoimmune response — the fact aborted fetal cells are included in vaccines means the body could see healthy cells as hostile and then engage in self-destructive behavior.

Here is a video that suggests that nagalase is intentionally put into vaccines to weaken the immune system. Dr. Bradstreet found that autistic children tended to have a highly elevated level of nagalase in their blood. He claimed to have tested over 400 autistic children for the viral marker nagalase, and found that close to 80% of them had significantly elevated levels. This would make sense as part of a dumbing down and depopulation agenda as described in THRIVE (at 1:33:55). Bradstreet treated 1,100 patients with GcMAF, with an 85% response rate.

“GcMAF and/or oral Colostrum MAF macrophage activation therapy is indicated in the treatment of any diseases where there is immune dysfunction or where the immune system is compromised,” explains the website of a clinic out of Japan that sells an oral form of GcMAF.

Here’s a diagram of how GcMAF works:

What is GcMAF useful for?

One of the things that GcMAF does is kill a protein made by all cancer cells called nagalase, which is excreted by cancer cells to disarm the human immune system. Nagalase causes immunodeficiency

Besides cancer, the conditions listed as appropriate candidates for benefit from GcMAF treatment include:

  • Autoimmune diseases
  • Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV)
  • Herpes Simplex virus (HSV)
  • Cystitis
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS)
  • Urinary tract infection (UTI)
  • Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
  • Endometriosis
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)
  • Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis)
  • IgA deficiency disorder
  • Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME)
  • Mycobacteria infections
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Tuberculosis
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV)
  • Lupus (Systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE)
  • HIV AIDS
  • Dengue fever
  • Pneumonia infection
  • Warts caused by viral infection
  • Norovirus
  • Malaria Influenza virus (flu)
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV)
  • Q fever (Coxiella burnetii)
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
  • Chicken pox (varicella zoster virus)
  • Psoriasis
  • Respiratory tract infections
  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Type 1 diabetes (T1DM)
  • Insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM)
  • Type 1.5 diabetes
  • Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA)

GcMAF is also showing itself to be effective for treating autism.

“In a study of 1500 children with autism, 85% had high levels of viruses and a compromised immune system. All 1500 received weekly GcMAF injections and 70% of the children responded to the treatment with reduced symptoms and another 15% made full recoveries. The other 15% did not respond. It was stated that the reduction of autistic symptoms is permanent provided that GcMAF has been taken long enough for the body to produce its own GcMAF which typically takes 24 weeks.”

I personally know individuals who have been dramatically helped by taking GcMAF. Marco Ruggerio delivered a paper at the AutismOne conference in May of 2015 — just before these murders started. Over the summer, patients who were using it had their supplies cut off from their original source in Switzerland where the company was being harassed and threatened. Subsequent shipments from another country were intercepted at the U.S. border, though eventually allowed through. Authorities in the UK have also been confiscating this beneficial compound.

Introducing foreign bodies via vaccination to instill a state of inflammation.

Text from James A. Miller

During the early 1990s, the World Health Organization (WHO) has been
overseeing massive vaccination campaigns against tetanus in a number
of countries, among them Nicaragua, Mexico, and the Philippines. In
October 1994, HLI received a communication from its Mexican
affiliate, the Comite Pro Vida de Mexico, regarding that country’s
anti-tetanus campaign. Suspicious of the campaign protocols, the
Comite obtained several vials of the vaccine and had them analyzed by
chemists. Some of the vials were found to contain human chorionic
gonadotrophin (hCG), a naturally occurring hormone essential for
maintaining a pregnancy.

hCG and anti-hCG antibodies.

In nature the hCG hormone alerts the women’s body that she is
pregnant and causes the release of other hormones to prepare the
uterine lining for the implantation of the fertilized egg. The rapid
rise in hCG levels after conception makes it an excellent marker for
confirmation of pregnancy: when a woman takes a pregnancy test she is
not tested for the pregnancy itself, but for the elevated presence of
hCG.

However, when introduced into the body coupled with a tetanus toxoid
carrier, antibodies will be formed not only against tetanus but also
against hCG. In this case the body fails to recognize hCG as a friend
and will produce anti-hCG antibodies. These antibodies will attack
subsequent pregnancies by killing the hCG which naturally sustains a
pregnancy; when a woman has sufficient anti-hCG antibodies in her
system, she is rendered incapable of maintaining a pregnancy.[1]

HLI reported the sketchy facts regarding the Mexican tetanus vaccines
to its World Council members and affiliates in more than 60
countries.[2] Soon additional reports of vaccines laced with hCG
hormones began to drift in from the Philippines, where more than 3.4
million women were recently vaccinated. Similar reports came from
Nicaragua, which had conducted its own vaccination campaign in 1993.

The known facts.

Here are the known facts concerning the tetanus vaccination campaigns
in Mexico and the Philippines:

* Only women are vaccinated, and only the women between the ages of
15 and 45. (In Nicaragua the age range was 12-49). But aren’t men at
least as likely as young women to come into contact with tetanus? And
what of the children? Why are they excluded?

* Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) hormone has been found in the
vaccines. It does not belong there -in the parlance of the O.J.
Simpson murder trial, the vaccine has been “contaminated.”

* The vaccination protocols call for multiple injections-three within
three months and a total of five altogether. But, since tetanus
vaccinations provide protection for ten years or more, why are
multiple inoculations called for?[3]

* WHO has been actively involved for more than 20 years in the
development of an anti-fertility vaccine utilizing hCG tied to
tetanus toxoid as a carrier-the exact same coupling as has been found
in the Mexican-Philippine-Nicaragua vaccines.[4]

The anti-fertility gang.

Allied with the WHO in the development of an anti-fertility vaccine
(AFV) using hCG with tetanus and other carriers have been UNFPA, the
UN Development Programme (UNDP), the World Bank, the Population
Council, the Rockefeller Foundation, the All India Institute of
Medical Sciences, and a number of universities, including Uppsala,
Helsinki, and Ohio State.[5] The U.S. National Institute of Child
Health and Human Development (part of NIH) was the supplier of the
hCG hormone in some of the AFV experiments.[6]

The WHO began its “Special Programme” in human reproduction in 1972,
and by 1993 had spent more than $356 million on “reproductive health”
research.[7] It is this “Programme” which has pioneered the
development of the abortificant vaccine. Over $90 million of this
Programme’s funds were contributed by Sweden; Great Britain donated
more than $52 million, while Norway, Denmark and Germany kicked in
for $41 million, $27 million, and $12 million, respectively. The
U.S., thanks to the cut-off of such funding during the Reagan-Bush
administrations, has contributed “only” $5.7 million, including a new
payment in 1993 by the Clinton administration of $2.5 million. Other
major contributors to the WHO Programme include UNFPA, $61 million;
the World Bank, $15.5 million; the Rockefeller Foundation, $2.5
million; the Ford Foundation, over $1 million; and the IDRC
(International Research and Development Centre of Canada), $716.5
thousand.

WHO and Philippine Health Department excuses.

When the first reports surfaced in the Philippines of tetanus toxoid
vaccine being laced with hCG hormones, the WHO and the Philippine
Department of Health (DOH) immediately denied that the vaccine
contained hCG. Confronted with the results of laboratory tests which
detected its presence in three of the four vials of tetanus toxoid
examined, the WHO and DOH scoffed at the evidence coming from
“right-to-life and Catholic” sources. Four new vials of the tetanus
vaccine were submitted by DOH to St. Luke’s (Lutheran) Medical
Center in Manila-and all four vials tested positive for hCG!

From outright denial the stories now shifted to the allegedly
“insignificant” quantity of the hCG present; the volume of hCG
present is insufficient to produce anti-hCG antibodies.

But new tests designed to detect the presence of hCG antibodies in
the blood sera of women vaccinated with the tetanus toxoid vaccine
were undertaken by Philippine pro- life and Catholic groups. Of
thirty women tested subsequent to receiving tetanus toxoid vaccine,
twenty-six tested positive for high levels of anti-hCG antibodies! If
there were no hCG in the vaccine, or if it were present in only
“insignificant” quantities, why were the vaccinated women found to be
harboring anti-hCG antibodies? The WHO and the DOH had no answers.

New arguments surfaced: hCG’s apparent presence in the vaccine was
due to “false positives” resulting from the particular substances
mixed in the vaccine or in the chemicals testing for hCG. And even if
hCG was really there, its presence derived from the manufacturing
process.

But the finding of hCG antibodies in the blood sera of vaccinated
women obviated the need to get bogged down in such debates. It was no
longer necessary to argue about what may or may not have been the
<cause> of the hCG presence, when one now had the <effect> of the
hCG. There is no known way for the vaccinated women to have hCG
antibodies in their blood unless hCG had been artificially introduced
into their bodies!

Why a tetanus toxoid “carrier”?

Because the human body does not attack its own naturally occurring
hormone hCG, the body has to be fooled into treating hCG as an
invading enemy in order to develop a successful antifertility vaccine
utilizing hCG antibodies. A paper delivered at the 4th International
Congress of Reproductive Immunology (Kiel, West Germany, 2629 July
1989) spelled it out: “Linkage to a carrier was done to overcome the
immunological tolerance to hCG.”[8]

Vaccine untested by Drug Bureau.

After the vaccine controversy had reached a fever pitch, a new
bombshell exploded: none of the three different brands of tetanus
vaccine being used had ever been licensed for sale and distribution
or registered with the Philippine Bureau of Food and Drugs (BFAD), as
required by law. The head of the BAFD lamely explained that the
companies distributing these brands “did not apply for
registration.”[9] The companies in question are Connaught
Laboratories Ltd. and Intervex, both from Canada, and CSL
Laboratories from Australia.

It seemed that the BAFD might belatedly require re-testing, but the
idea was quickly rejected when the Secretary of Health declared that,
since the vaccines had been certified by the WHO -there they are
again!-there was assurance enough that the “vaccines come from
reputable manufacturers.”[10]

Just how “reputable” one of the manufacturers might be is open to
some question. In the mid-’80s Connaught Laboratories was found to
be knowingly distributing vials of AIDS-contaminated blood
products.[11]

Epilogue.

At this juncture, evidence is beginning to appear from Africa.[12]
HLI has called for a Congressional investigation of the situation,
inasmuch as nearly every agency involved in the development of an
anti-fertility vaccine is funded, at least in part, with U.S.
monies.

ENDNOTES.

1 “Abortifacient vaccines loom as new threat,” <HLI Reports>,
November 1993, pp. 1-2.

2 <World Council Reports>, 28 November 1994, pp. 4-5.

3 A call placed by this writer on 5 May 1995 to the Montgomery County
(Maryland) Health Department, Epidemology Division-Infectious
Diseases – Adult Immunizations, elicited the following information:

Q. For how long a time does the tetanus vaccination offer protection?

A. 10 years.

Q. Have you ever heard of any adult requiring three tetanus
vaccinations within a 3 or 4 month time period, and a total of 5
vaccinations in all within a year or so?

A. Whaaaat! Never. No way!

Reports from the Philippines appear to confirm the 10-year immunity
afforded by tetanus toxoid vaccinations: prior to the campaigns begun
in 1993, the so-called booster shots were given only every 10-years.

4 More than a score of articles, many written by WHO researchers,
document WHO’s attempts to create an anti-fertility vaccine utilizing
tetanus toxoid as a carrier. Some leading articles include:

“Clinical profile and Toxicology Studies on Four Women Immunized with
Pr-B-hCG- TT,” <Contraception>, February, 1976, pp. 253-268.

“Observations on the antigenicity and clinical effects of a candidate
antipregnancy vaccine: ,B-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin
linked to tetanus toxoid,” <Fertility and Sterility>, October 1980,
pp. 328-335

“Phase I Clinical Trials of a World Health Organization Birth Control
Vaccine,” <The Lancet>, 11 June 1988, pp. 1295-1298. “Vaccines for
Fertility Regulation,” Chapter 11, pp. 177-198, <Research in Human
Reproduction, Biennial Report> (1986-1987), WHO Special Programme of
Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction
(WHO, Geneva 1988).

“Anti-hCG Vaccines are in Clinical Trials,” <Scandinavian Journal of
Immunology>, Vol. 36, 1992, pp. 123-126.

5 These institutional names are garnered from the journal articles
cited in the previous footnote.

6 <Lancet>, 11 June 1988, at p. 1296.

7 <Challenges in Reproductive Health Research, Biennial Report
1992-1993>, World Health Organization, Geneva, 1994, p. 186.

8 G.P. Talwar, et al, “Prospects of an anti-hCG vaccine inducing
antibodies of high affinity…(etc),” <Reproductive Technology> 1989,
Elsevier Science Publishers, 1990, Amsterdam, New York, p. 231.

9 3 DOH vaccines untested by BFAD,” <The Philippine Star>, 4 April
1995, pp. 1, 12.

10 “BFAD junks re-testing of controversial shot,” <Manila Standard> 7
April 1995; “DOH: Toxoid vaccines are safe,” <The Philippine Star>. 7
April 1995.

11 “Ottawa got blood tainted by HIV.” <Ottawa Citizen>, 4 April 1995.

12 A nearly two-year old communique from Tanzania tells a familiar
story: tetanus toxoid vaccinations, five in all, given only to women
aged 1545. Nigeria, too, may have been victimized; see <The Lancet>,
4 June 1988, p. 1273.
Taken from the June/July 1995 issue of “HLI Reports.” To subscribe
contact: HLI Reports, 7845 Airpark Road, Suite E Gaithersburg, MD
20879

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The Worldwide Network of US Military Bases

Globalizing Imperialism: The Global Deployment of US Military Personnel.

Global Research Editor’s Note:

This important analysis and review of US military might by award winning Canadian geographer Professor Jules Dufour, was first published by Global Research in 2007. Jules Dufour passed away after a long illness in August 2017. 

US military presence around the World has expanded dramatically in the course of the last five years.  This study is largely based on data for the period 2001-2005.

The Worldwide control of humanity’s economic, social and political activities is under the helm of US corporate and military power. Underlying this process are various schemes of direct and indirect military intervention. These US sponsored strategies ultimately consist in a process of global subordination.


Where is the Threat?

The 2000 Global Report published in 1980 had outlined “the State of the World” by focusing on so-called  “level of threats” which might negatively influence or undermine US interests.

Twenty years later, US strategists, in an attempt to justify their military interventions in different parts of the World, have conceptualized the greatest fraud in US history, namely “the Global War on Terrorism” (GWOT). The latter, using a fabricated pretext  constitutes a global war against all those who oppose US hegemony. A modern form of slavery, instrumented through militarization and the “free market” has unfolded.

Major elements of the conquest and world domination strategy by the US refer to:

1) the control of the world economy and its financial markets,

2) the taking over of all natural resources (primary resources and nonrenewable sources of energy). The latter constitute the cornerstone of US power through the activities of its multinational corporations.

Geopolitical Outreach: Network of Military Bases

The US has established its control over 191 governments which are members of the United Nations. The conquest, occupation and/or otherwise supervision of these various regions of the World is supported by an integrated network of military bases and installations which covers the entire Planet (Continents, Oceans and Outer Space). All this pertains to the workings of  an extensive Empire, the exact dimensions of which are not always easy to ascertain.

Known and documented from information in the public domaine including Annual Reports of the US Congress, we have a fairly good understanding of the strucuture of US military expenditure, the network of US military bases and  the shape of this US military-strategic configuration in different regions of the World.

The objective of this article is to build a summary profile of the World network of military bases, which are under the jurisdiction and/or control  of the US. The spatial distribution of these military bases will be examined together with an analysis of the multibillion dollar annual cost of their activities.

In a second section of this article, Worldwide popular resistance movements directed against US military bases and their various projects will be outlined. In a further article we plan to analyze the military networks of other major nuclear superpowers including  the United Kingdom, France and Russia.


I. The Military Bases

Military bases are conceived for training purposes, preparation and stockage of military equipment, used by national armies throughout the World. They are not very well known in view of the fact that they are not open to the public at large. Even though they take on different shapes, according to the military function for which they were established; they can broadly be classified under four main categories :

a) Air Force Bases (see photos 1 and 2);

b) Army or Land Bases;

c) Navy Bases and

d) Communication and Spy Bases.

Photo 1. Air Base of Diego Garcia located in the Indian Ocean

Photo 2. Diego Garcia. An Aerial View of two B-52 and six Kc-a135

II. More than 1000 US Bases and/or Military Installations

The main sources of information on these military installations (e.g. C. Johnson, the NATO Watch Committee, the International Network for the Abolition of Foreign Military Bases) reveal that the US operates and/or controls between 700 and 800 military bases Worldwide.

In this regard, Hugh d’Andrade and Bob Wing’s 2002 Map 1 entitled “U.S. Military Troops and Bases around the World, The Cost of ‘Permanent War’”, confirms the presence of US military personnel in 156 countries.

The US Military has bases in 63 countries. Brand new military bases have been built since September 11, 2001 in seven countries.

In total, there are 255,065 US military personnel deployed Worldwide.

These facilities include a total of 845,441 different buildings and equipments. The underlying land surface is of the order of 30 million acres. According to Gelman, who examined 2005 official Pentagon data, the US is thought to own a total of 737 bases in foreign lands. Adding to the bases inside U.S. territory, the total land area occupied by US military bases domestically within the US and internationally is of the order of 2,202,735 hectares, which makes the Pentagon one of the largest landowners worldwide (Gelman, J., 2007).

Map 1. U.S. Military Troops and Bases around the World. The Cost of «Permanent War» and Some Comparative Data

Source: http://www.unitedforpeace.org/article.php?id=884

Map 2. The American Military Bases Around the World (2001-2003)

Source : http://www.globalpolicy.org/empire/intervention/index.htm

Source : http://www.nobases.org

Map 3 US Military Bases Click here to see Map 3

The Map of the World Network “No Bases” (Map 3) reveals the following:

Based on a selective examination of military bases in North America, Latin America, Western Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Japan, several of these military bases are being used for intelligence purposes. New selected sites are Spy Bases and Satellite-related Spy Bases.

The Surface of the Earth is Structured as a Wide Battlefield

These military bases and installations of various kinds are distributed according to a Command structure divided up into five spatial units and four unified Combatant Commands (Map 4). Each unit is under the Command of a General.

The Earth surface  is being conceived as a wide battlefield which can be patrolled or steadfastly supervised from the Bases.

Map 4. The World and Territories Under the Responsibility of a Combatant Command or Under a Command Structure

Source : http://www.defense.gov/home/features/2009/0109_unifiedcommand

Territories under a Command are: the Northern Command (NORTHCOM) (Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado), the Pacific Command (Honolulu, Hawaii), the Southern Command (Miami, Florida – Map 5), The Central Command (CENTCOM) (MacDill Air Force Base, Florida), the European Command (Stuttgart-Vaihingen, Germany), the Joint Forces Command (Norfolk, Virginia), the Special Operations Command (MacDill Air Force Base, Florida), the Transportation Command (Scott Air Force Base, Illinois) and the Strategic Command (STRATCOM) (Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska).

Map 5. The Southern Command

Source : http://www.visionesalternativas.com/militarizacion/mapas/mapabases.htm

NATO Military Bases

The Atlantic Alliance (NATO) has its own Network of military bases, thirty in total. The latter are primarily located in Western Europe:

Whiteman, U.S.A., Fairford,
Lakenheath and Mildenhall in United Kingdom,
Eindhoven in Netherlands,
Brüggen, Geilenkirchen, Landsberg, Ramstein, Spangdahlem, Rhein-Main in Germany,
Istres and Avord in France.
Morón de la Frontera and Rota in Spain,
Brescia, Vicenza, Piacenza, Aviano, Istrana, Trapani, Ancora, Pratica di Mare, Amendola, Sigonella, Gioia dell Colle, Grazzanise and Brindisi in Italy,
Tirana in Albania,
Incirlik in Turkey,
Eskan Village in Soudi Arabia and
Ali al Salem in Koweit (http://www.terra.es/actualidad/articulo/html/act52501.html)

III. The Global Deployment of US Military Personnel

There are 6000  military bases and/ or military warehouses located in the U.S. (See Wikipedia, February 2007).

Total Military Personnel is of the order of  1,4 million of which 1,168,195 are in the U.S and US overseas territories.

Taking figures from the same source, there are 325,000 US military personnel in foreign countries:

800 in Africa,
97,000 in Asia (excluding the Middle East and Central Asia),
40,258 in South Korea,
40,045 in Japan,
491 at the Diego Garcia Base in the Indian Ocean,
100 in the Philippines, 196 in Singapore,
113 in Thailand,
200 in Australia,
and 16,601 Afloat.

In Europe, there are 116,000 US military personnel including 75,603 who are stationed in Germany.

In Central Asia about 1,000 are stationed at the Ganci (Manas) Air Base in Kyrgyzstan and 38 are located at Kritsanisi, in Georgia, with a mission to train Georgian soldiers.

In the Middle East (excludng the Iraq war theater) there are 6,000 US military personnel, 3,432 of whom are in Qatar and 1,496 in Bahrain.

In the Western Hemisphere, excluding the U.S. and US territories, there are 700 military personnel in Guantanamo, 413 in Honduras and 147 in Canada.

Map 3 provides information regarding military personnel on duty, based on a regional categorization (broad regions of the world). The total number of military personnel at home in the U.S. and/or in US Territories is 1,139,034. There are 1,825 in Europe 114, 660, 682 in Subsaharian Africa, 4, 274 in the Middle East and Southern Asia, 143 in the Ex-USSR, and 89,846 in the Pacific.

IV. The Operational Cost of the Worldwide Military Network

US defense spending (excluding the costs of the Iraq war) have increased from 404 in 2001 to 626 billion dollars in 2007 according to data from the Washington based Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation. US defense spending is expected to reach 640 billion dollars in 2008.

(Figure 1 and http://www.armscontrolcenter.org/archives/002244.php ).

These 2006 expenses correspond to 3.7% of the US GDP and $935.64 per capita   (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_of-the_United_States).

Figure 1. U.S. Military Expenditures since 1998

Source : http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/ArmsTrade/Spending.asp

According to Fig 1, the 396 billion dollars military budget proposed in 2003 has in fact reached 417.4 billion dollars, a 73% increase compared to 2000 (289 billion dollars). This outlay for 2003 was more than half of the total of the US discretionary budget.

Since 2003, these military expenditures have to be added to those of the Iraq war and occupation The latter reached in March 2007, according to the National Priorities Project, a cumulative total of 413 billion dollars.

(http://www.janes.com/defence/news/jdi/jdi050504_1_n.shtml),

(http://nationalpriorities.org/index.php?option=com_wrapper&Itemid=182).

Estimates of the Defense Department budget needs, made public in 2006 in the DoD Green Book for FY 2007 are of the order of  440 billion dollars.
(http://www.dod.mil/comptroller/defbudget/fy2007/index.html)

Military and other staff required numbered 1,332,300. But those figures do not include the money required for the “Global World on Terrorism” (GWOT). In other words, these figures largely pertain to the regular Defense budget.

A Goldstein of the Washington Post, within the framework of an article on the aspects of the National 2007 budget titled «2007 Budget Favors Defense», wrote about this topic:

“Overall, the budget for the 2007 fiscal year would further reshape the government in the way the administration has been striving to during the past half-decade: building up military capacity and defenses against terrorist threats on U.S. soil, while restraining expenditures for many domestic areas, from education programs to train service”

(http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/02/04/AR2006020401179.html).

V. US Military Bases to Protect Strategic Energy Resources

In the wake of 9/11, Washington initiated its “Global War on Terrorism” (GWOT), first in Afghanistan and then in Iraq. Other countries, which were not faithfully obeying Washington’s directives including Iran, North Korea, Syria and Venezuela have been earmarked for possible US military intervention.

Washington keeps a close eye on countries opposed to US corporate control over their resources. Washington also targets countries where there are popular resistance movements directed against US interests, particularly in South America. In this context, President Bush made a quick tour to Brazil, Uruguay, Colombia, Guatemala and Mexico «to promote democracy and trade» but also with a view to ultimately curbing and restraining popular dissent to the US interests in the region. .

(http://www.voanews.com/spanish/2007-03-08-voa1.cfm)

The same broad approach is being applied in Central Asia. According to Iraklis Tsavdaridis, Secretary of the World Peace Council (WPC):

“The establishment of U.S. military bases should not of course be seen simply in terms of direct military ends. They are always used to promote the economic and political objectives of U.S. capitalism. For example, U.S. corporations and the U.S. government have been eager for some time to build a secure corridor for US.-controlled oil and natural gas pipelines from the Caspian Sea in Central Asia through Afghanistan and Pakistan to the Arabian Sea. This region -has more than 6 percent of the world’s proven oil reserves and almost 40 percent of its gas reserves. The war in Afghanistan and the creation of U.S. military Bases in Central Asia are viewed as a key opportunity to make such pipelines a reality.”

(http://stopusa.be/campaigns/texte.php?section=FABN&langue=3&id=24157 ).

The US. are at War in Afghanistan and Iraq. They pursue these military operations until they reach their objective which they call “VICTORY”. According to Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deployment_of-the_U.S.-Military), American troops fighting in these countries number 190,000.  The “Enduring Freedom” Operation in Iraq alone has almost 200,000 military personnel, including 26,000 from other countries participating to the US sponsored “Mission”. About 20,000 more could join other contingents in the next few months. In Afghanistan, a total of 25,000 soldiers participate to the operation (Map 6 and Map 7).

Map  6.  Petroleum and International Theatre of War in the Middle East and Central Asia

Source : Eric Waddell, The Battle for Oil, Global Research, 2003

Source : http://www.heartland.it/

Map 8. Oil Fields in Latin America

Source : http://www.visionesalternativas.com/militarizacion/mapas/mapahegem.htm

VI. Military Bases Used for the Control of Strategic Renewable Resources

US Military Bases in foreign countries, are mainly located in Western Europe: 26 of them are in Germany, 8, in Great Britain, and 8 in Italy. There are nine military installations in Japan (Wikepedia).

In the last few years, in the context of the GWOT, the US haa built 14 new bases in and around the Persian Gulf.

It is also involved in construction and/or or reinforcement of 20 bases (106 structured units as a whole) in Iraq, with costs  of the order of 1.1 billion dollars in that country alone (Varea, 2007) and the use of about ten bases in Central Asia.

The US has also undertaken continued negotiations with several countries to install, buy, enlarge or rent an addional number of military bases. The latter pertain inter alia to installations in Morocco, Algeria, Mali, Ghana, Brazil and Australia (See Nicholson, B., 2007), Poland, Czech Republic (Traynor, I., 2007), Ouzbekistan, Tadjikistan, Kirghizstan, Italy (Jucca, L., 2007) and France.

Washington has signed an agreement to build a military base in Djibouti (Manfredi, E., 2007). All these initiatives are a part of an overall plan to install a series of military bases geographically located in a West-East corridor extending from Colombia in South America, to North Africa, the Near East, Central Asia and as far as the Philippines (Johnson, C., 2004). The US bases in South American are related to the control and access to the extensive natural biological , mineral and water resources resources of the Amazon Basin. (Delgado Jara, D., 2006 and Maps 9 and 10).

Map 9. The Biological Wealth of Latin America

Source : http://www.visionesalternativas.com/militarizacion/mapas/mapahegem.htm

Map 10. Freshwater Resources in Latin America

Source : http://www.visionesalternativas.com/militarizacion/mapas/mapahegem.htm

VII. Resistance Movements

The network of US military bases is strategic, located in prcximity of traditional strategic resources including nonrenewable sources of energy. This military presence has brought about political opposition and resistance from progressive movements and antiwar activists.

Demonstrations directed against US military presence has developed in Spain, Ecuador, Italy, Paraguay, Uzbekistan, Bulgaria and in many other countries. Moreover, other long-termer resistance movements directed against US military presence have continued in South Korea, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Philippines, Cuba, Europe, Japan and other locations.

The Worldwide resistance to US foreign military bases has grown during the last few years. We are dealing with an International Network for the Abolition of US Military Bases.

Such networks’ objective is to broadly pursue disarmament, demilitarization processes Worldwide as well as dismantle US military bases in foreign countries.

The NO BASES Network organizes educational campaigns to sensitize public opinion.  It also works to rehabilitate abandoned military sites, as in the case of Western Europe.

These campaigns, until 2004, had a local and national impact.

The network is now in a position to reach people Worldwide. The network itself underscores that “much can be gained from greater and deeper linkages among local and national campaigns and movements across the globe. Local groups around the world can learn and benefit from sharing information, experiences, and strategies with each other”

(http://www.no-bases.org/index.php?mod=network&bloque=1&idioma=en )

“The realisation that one is not alone in the struggle against foreign bases is profoundly empowering and motivating. Globally coordinated actions and campaigns can highlight the reach and scale of the resistance to foreign military presence around the world. With the trend of rising miniaturization and resort to the use of force around the world, there is now an urgent and compelling need to establish and strengthen an international network of campaigners, organisations, and movements working with a special and strategic focus on foreign military presence and ultimately, working towards a lasting and just system of peace»

(http://www.no-bases.org/index.php?mod=network&bloque=1&idioma=en )

The Afghanistan and Iraq wars have, in this regard, created a favourable momentum, which has contributed to the reinforcement of the movement to close down US military bases in foreign countries:

“At the time of an International anti-war meeting held in Jakarta in May 2003, a few weeks after the start of the Iraq invasion, a global anti-military Bases campaign has been proposed as an action to priorize among global anti-war, justice and solidarity movements»  (http://www.no-bases.org/index.php?mod=network&bloque=1&idioma=en).

Since then, the campaign has acquired greater recognition. E-mail lists have been compiled (nousbases@lists.riseup.net  and nousbases-info@lists.riseup.net ) that permit the diffusion of the movement members experiences and information and discussion exchanges. That list now groups 300 people and organizations from 48 countries. A Web site permits also to adequately inform all Network members. Many rubrics provide highly valuable information on ongoing activities around the World.

http://www.no-bases.org/index.php?mod=network&bloque=1&idioma=en

In addition, the Network is more and more active and participates in different activities. At the World Social Forums it organized various conferences and colloquia. It was present at the European Social Forum held in Paris in 2003 and in London in 2004 as well as at the the America’s Social Forum in Ecuador in 2004, and at the Mediterranean Social Forum in Spain in 2005.

One of the major gatherings, which was held in Mumbai, India, in 2004, was within the framework of the World Social Forum. More than 125 participants from 34 countries defined the foundations of a coordinated global campaign.

Action priorities were identified, such as the determination of a global day of action aiming at underscoring major issues stemming from the existence of US military bases. The Network also held four discussion sessions at the Porto Alegre Social Forum in 2005. One of those pertained to the financing of the Network’s activities.

It is important to recall that the Network belongs to the Global Peace Movement. Justice and Peace organizations have  become more sensitized on what was at stake regarding US military bases.

Map 11. Social and Resistence Movements in Latin America

Source : http://www.visionesalternativas.com/militarizacion/mapas/mapahegem.htm

The Quito and Manta International Conference, Ecuador, March 2007

A Network World Conference for the Abolition of Foreign Military Bases was held at Quito and at Manta, Ecuador, from March 5 to 9 2007

(http://72.14.205.104/search?q=cache:SmEvQwFUeiAJ:www.abolishbases.org/pdf/CalltoEcuadorFlyer-Francais.pdf+R%C3%A9seau+mondial+des+bases+militaires&hl=fr&gl=ca&ct=clnk&cd=3&lr=lang_fr ).

The objective of the Conference was to underscore the political, social, environmental and economic impacts of US military bases, to make known the principles of the various Anti-Bases movements and to formally build the Network, its strategies, structure and Action Plans. The main objectives of the Conference were the following:

–           Analyze the role of Foreign Military Bases and other features of military presence associated to the global dominance strategy and their impacts upon population and environment;

–           Share experiences and reinforce the built solidarity resulting from the resistance battles against Foreign military Bases around the World;

–           Reach a consensus on objectives mechanisms, on action plans, on coordination, on communication and on decision making of a Global Network for the abolition of all Foreign military Bases and of all other expressions of military presence; and

–            Establish global action plans to fight and reinforce the resistance of local people and ensure that these actions are being coordinated at the international level.

Conclusion

This article has focussed on the Worldwide development of US military power.

The US tends to view the Earth surface as a vast territory to conquer, occupy and exploit. The fact that the US Military splits the World up into geographic command units vividly illustrates this underlying geopolitical reality.

Humanity is being controlled  and enslaved by this Network of US military bases. .

The ongoing re-deployment of US troops and military bases has to be analyzed in a thorough manner if we wish to understand the nature of US interventionism  in different regions of the World.

This militarization process is characterized by armed aggression and warfare, as well as interventions called “cooperation agreements”. The latter reaffirmed America’s economic design design in the areas of trade and investment practices. Economic development is ensured through the miniaturization or the control of governments and organizations. Vast resources are thereby expended and wasted in order to allow such control to be effective, particularly  in regions which have a strategic potential in terms of wealth and resources and which are being used to consolidate the Empire’s structures and functions.

The setting up of the International Network for the Abolition of Foreign Military Bases turns out to be an extraordinary means to oppose the miniaturization process of the Planet. Such Network is indispensable and its growth depends on a commitment of all the People of the World. It will be extremely difficult to mobilize them, but the ties built up by the Network among its constituent resistance movements are a positive element, which is ultimately conducive to more cohesive and coordinated battle at the World level.

The Final Declaration of the Second International Conference against Foreign Military Bases which was held in Havana in November 2005 and was endorsed by delegates from 22 countries identifies most of the major issues, which confront mankind. This Declaration constitutes a major peace initiative. It establishes  international solidarity in the process of  disarmament.


References

COMITÉ DE SURVEILLANCE OTAN. 2005. Las bases militares : un aspecto de la estrategia global de la OTAN. Intervencion del Comité Surveillance Otan en la Conferencia Internacional realizada en La Habana 7-11.11.2005. 9 pages.

DELGADO JARA, Diego. 2006. Bases de Manta, Plan Colombia y dominio de la Amazonia. Militarizacion de la Hegemonia de EE. UU. En América latina. 17 pages.

EQUIPO DE COMUNICACIÓN CONFERENCIA NO BASES. 2007. La gente del mundo no quiere bases militares extranjeras. 

GELMAN, J. 2007. Terratenientes. Rebelion. 26 de Febrero de 2007,  http://www.rebelion.org/noticia.php?id-47353

Ghana to host US Military Base? February 26, 2006. 

JOHNSON, C.,  America’s Empire of Bases. January 2004.

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JOHNSON, C., 2007.. 737 U.S. Military Bases = Global Empire.  February 19, 2007

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MANFREDI, E. 2007. Djibouti : Hôtel Corne d’Afrique, grande base américaine. Le GRAND SOIR.info. Édition du 23 mars 2007.

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NICHOLSON, B. 2007. Secret New Us Spy base to Get Green Light. February 15, 2 007.

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VAREA, C., Las bases Militares de EEUU en Iraq. 4 mai 2006. Nodo50.


Websites: 

An Internet Guide to United States Military Bases Around the World :

http://www.libsci.sc.edu/bob/class/clis734/webguides/milbase.htm

APPEL A UN RASSEMBLEMENT INTERNATIONAL en Mars 2007, Équateur, Pour  l’abolition de toutes les bases militaires

Bases y Ejercicios Militares de EE.UU. El Comando Sur.

BUILDING A GLOBAL ANTI-MILITARY BASES MOVEMENT
Campana. Un mundo sin bases militares . Asemblea de Organizaciones y Movimientos contra la guerra, la OTAN y el Neoliberalismo (Madrid), Nodo50.

Challenges to the US Empire, http://www.globalpolicy.org/empire/challenges/challengesindex.htm.

Washington veut installer une base militaire en Algérie. Le Quotidien d’Oran, 20 juillet 2003.

Empire? http://www.globalpolicy.org/empire/index.htm

International Conference against Foreign Military Bases. Final Declaration.

[Fsmed-general] for all that are against foreign military bases:
http://www.grups.pangea.org/pipermail/fsmed-general/Week-of-Mon-20060206/001002.html

FUENTES DE AGUA EN AMÉRICA LATINA :
http://www.visionesalternativas.com/militarizacion/mapas/mapahegem.htm

Abdulhafeth Khrisat, Impérialisme américain et politique militaire, ,  Université Mu’tah

Interview with Chalmers Johnson, Part 1. An Empire of More Than 725 Military Bases.

Liste des bases militaires américaines dans le monde.

Major Military Bases World-Wide,
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/sites.htm

Military Bases Around The World, http://www.fsmitha.com/com/bases.htm

Military Bases around the world and in Europe – the role of the USA and NATO , Iraklis Tsavdaridis, Secretary of the World Peace Council (WPC) 8th November 2005, From the Greek Committee for International Detente and Peace (EEDYE), Presented on November 8, 2005 at the International Conference on Foreign Military Bases in Havana/Cuba organized by MOVPAZ :

http://stopusa.be/campaigns/texte.php?section=FABN&langue=3&id=24157

Military of the United States : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_armed_forces

MOVIMIENTOS SOCIALES DE RESISTENCIA EN AMÉRICA LATINA

No a la instalacion de una base de la OTAN en Zaragoza :
http://www.ecologistasenaccion.org/article.php3?id_article=6261

OTAN – Le grand jeu des bases militaires en terre européenne :

http://www.mondialisation.ca/index.php?context=viewArticle&code=DIN20060509&articleId=2414

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http://spanish.peopledaily.com.cn/spanish/200104/02/sp20010402_46341.html

RIQUEZA DE LA BIODIVERSIDAD EN AMÉRICA LATINA

US Military Troops and Bases Around the World :
http://www.globalpolicy.org/empire/intervention/2003/0710imperialmap.htm

U.S. Military Troops and Bases Around the World /united for peace & justice:
http://www.unitedforpeace.org/article.php?id=884

US Military Expansion and Intervention :
http://www.globalpolicy.org/empire/intervention/index.htm

YACIMIENTOS PETROLEROS EN AMÉRICA LATINA :
http://www.visionesalternativas.com/militarizacion/mapas/mapapetrol.htm

Jules Dufour is President of the United Nations Association of Canada (UNA-C) – Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean branch and Research Associate at the Centre for Research on Globalization (CRG).  He is Emeritus Professor of Geography at the University of  Quebec, Chicoutimi.

In 2007, Professor Jules Dufour became Chevalier de l’Ordre national du Québec, a distinction conferred by the Quebec government, for his contributions to World peace and human rights,  his numerous scholarly writings and the work he accomplished in the context of national and international commissions on issues pertaining to regional development, human rights and the protection of the environment.

Translated from the French, first published on Global Research’s French language website: www.mondialisation.ca